- 1 What is a Yalta onion and what does it look like
- 2 Characteristics of the Yalta onion
- 3 Pros and cons of the variety
- 4 How to distinguish a real Yalta onion from a fake
- 5 Why is Yalta red onion useful?
- 6 Is it possible to grow Yalta onions in the Moscow region and the middle lane
- 7 Sowing Yalta onions for seedlings
- 8 Seedling care
- 9 Planting seedlings in open ground
- 10 Further care
- 11 Diseases and pests
- 12 How is Yalta onion stored
- 13 Conclusion
- 14 Reviews of the Yalta onion
The Yalta onion won the love of gardeners all over the country not only with its red-purple color. The sweet taste and the content of a large amount of vitamins and minerals make the use of this vegetable not only pleasant, but also useful.
What is a Yalta onion and what does it look like
The history of the red Yalta onion begins in the middle of the 20th century, when, on the basis of the naturalized form of its Portuguese relative, Mader flat, Crimean scientists bred a new variety of this culture. The aim of the breeders was to improve keeping quality and eliminate too intense purple coloration, which at that time was considered a disadvantage.
At first, the variety was registered under the name Yalta local, and later, Yalta Lux and Yalta red were created on its basis.
Red onion Yalta is a salad variety with medium-sized flat-round fruits. Its weight is 200 g, but there are specimens whose weight reaches 300 g.
The upper covering layer of the bulb consists of dry, dense scales, which can be purple with a slight red tint or dark pink. The pulp is juicy and crispy. The inner part consists of seven layers of white-pink scales. They practically do not separate.
The bottom of the bulb is slightly concave, the root system is fibrous.
The taste of Crimean onions is pleasant, sweetish, without hints of bitterness, characteristic of most of the representatives of this culture.
The fruits contain a small amount of essential substances. The aroma of the Yalta onion is not too intense and does not irritate the mucous membranes of the eyes.
In most cases, it is used in the process of preparing salads from fresh vegetables or decorating ready-made meals.
Characteristics of the Yalta onion
The characteristics of the Yalta onion are similar to the descriptions of other varieties. This is a thermophilic and light-loving culture that reacts extremely negatively to a sharp decrease in ambient temperature.
The variety is characterized as high yielding and disease resistant. The high concentration of water and sugar makes Yalta onions unsuitable for long-term storage. On average, a culture can “keep” its freshness and presentation for no more than five months.
Pros and cons of the variety
Yalta red onion has a lot of advantages. But this variety also has disadvantages.
- juicy pulp and sweet taste;
- high content of nutrients;
- the possibility of growing on stony soils;
- attractive appearance.
- short shelf life;
- high requirements for the soil.
How to distinguish a real Yalta onion from a fake
To distinguish it from a fake and choose a real Yalta onion, you need to know its features. Often completely different, similar varieties are mistaken for this species.
Yalta onion differs from ordinary red in the following characteristics:
- the head is not absolutely flat, but conical;
- the outer scales of the original fruit are glossy, purple-purple;
- the bottom is retracted inward, a bright blue-violet halo is visible around it;
- a real Yalta onion has only seven internal scales - no more and no less;
- the juice of the original Yalta onion is clear and the taste is sweet.
Why is Yalta red onion useful?
The benefits and harms of the Yalta onion for the body are determined by its chemical composition. It contains vitamins A, C, group B, as well as minerals. And the concentration of antioxidants in red onions is almost twice as high as in other varieties of this vegetable. There are also amino acids and fiber necessary for the body.
Regular consumption of Yalta onions:
- helps to strengthen the immune system;
- helps to stop inflammatory processes in the body;
- is a good prevention of cancer;
- helps to remove decay products from the body;
- strengthens the walls of blood vessels;
- activates the synthesis of its own collagen;
- lowers blood pressure;
- helps to fight helminthiasis.
Excessive consumption of Yalta onions can cause irritation of the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines, so it should be included with caution in the diet of people suffering from gastrointestinal diseases.
Is it possible to grow Yalta onions in the Moscow region and the middle lane
Crimean onion is a thermophilic culture, for the normal development and fruiting of which a long summer and a certain soil composition are required.
Ideal conditions for growing the Yalta species are only in the Crimea. Currently, the main suppliers of this crop on an industrial scale are considered to be the agrotechnical farms of the villages of Opolznevoe, Goluboy Bay, Simeiz, Zaprudnoye and Lavrovoe.
The main reason that planting Yalta onions is not recommended in other regions is unsuitable soil. The fact is that the variety prefers Tauride slates, which accumulate solar heat during daylight hours, and give it to plantings at night.
The real Yalta onion grows in the Crimea, but you can cultivate this handsome man in another region. The main thing is to follow the rules of agricultural technology.
Sometimes the cultivation of Crimean onions in central Russia, including the Moscow region, causes a decrease in varietal characteristics - it turns out to be less juicy and sweet. To prevent this from happening, you need to choose extremely fertile soil. A good harvest of Crimean onions can be obtained by growing them in rocky areas. The dense structure of the soil does not allow the fruits to go deeply, as a result of which they warm up in the sun and acquire good commercial qualities.
Sowing Yalta onions for seedlings
It is better to grow Yalta onions from seeds through seedlings. Planting seed directly into unprotected soil delays the fruiting period and adds bitterness to the fruit. In addition, the yield with seedling cultivation will be better than with open soil.
When to plant Yalta onion seeds
Seed material for seedlings is planted in late February or early March. After about a couple of months, the matured seedlings dive into the open soil.
To grow a good harvest of Yalta onions from seeds, you need to properly prepare the planting material:
- The seeds are soaked for 30-40 minutes in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. This will help disinfect the planting material and reduce the likelihood of developing fungal diseases.
- After the specified time has elapsed, the seeds are washed and kept in a growth stimulator (according to the instructions attached to the preparation);
- After soaking, the water is drained and the seeds are dried.
Choice of capacity
Any container for seedlings is suitable: special plastic containers, wooden boxes, peat pots and even disposable glasses. The main thing is that they are equipped with drainage holes.
The seeds of the Yalta onion are laid out on the soil surface at a distance of 5 cm from each other. After that, they are buried 1 cm and the soil is moistened with a spray bottle.
The container with plantings is covered with glass or plastic wrap to create a greenhouse effect and left in a dry, warm place.
To get strong seedlings that can subsequently give a good harvest, you need to organize proper care for the plants:
- Temperature control. Immediately after planting the seeds, it should be + 23-25 ° С, and after the emergence of shoots, it should be reduced to + 15 ° С during the day and + 10 ° С at night. You do not need to try to warm up the room more, because excess heat can lead to stretching of the seedlings.
- Lighting. For the normal development of Yalta onion seedlings, a lot of light is needed. If it is not enough in the room, you will have to organize supplementary lighting of plants using phytolamps or fluorescent lamps.
- Watering. Red onions love water, so you need to moisten the seedlings regularly, preventing the topsoil from drying out. Just do not overdo it - excess moisture can cause rotting of the plant root system. It is recommended to irrigate the soil in the container using a spray bottle.
- Top dressing. You will have to feed the seedlings twice: first, fertilizers are applied 14 days after sowing, and in the second, three weeks after the first feeding.
- Thinning of seedlings. With a strong thickening of the plantings, it is recommended to plant the seedlings in such a way that the distance between the seedlings is at least 1 cm. It is better to remove diseased and damaged shoots.
- Hardening. In order for the plants to adapt faster in the open field, they need to be prepared in advance. For this, a box with seedlings begins to be taken out into the street about a week before planting, increasing the time spent in the fresh air every day.
Planting seedlings in open ground
Red onion seedlings are planted in unprotected soil when truly spring weather sets in and the threat of return frosts has passed. The selected area is pre-dug to the depth of the shovel, the necessary fertilizers are applied (potassium salt and ammonium nitrate) and its surface is leveled with a rake.
During the transplant:
- water the seedlings abundantly in a container and carefully remove the seedlings;
- shorten the leaves and roots by about half their length;
- make grooves 4 cm deep, the distance between them should be at least 35 cm;
- watering the prepared beds and planting seedlings at a distance of 10 cm from each other, slightly compacting the soil in the root zone;
- young plantings are watered again.
The subsequent care of the Crimean onion plantings is practically the same as for other vegetable crops:
- Watering.Lack of moisture can cause bitterness in onions. Therefore, it is necessary to water the plantings regularly, preventing the soil from drying out. During moistening, water is not poured under the root, but is allowed to run along the aisle.
- Loosening the soil and removing weeds. It is advisable to do the first procedure after each watering. Weeds are removed as they emerge.
- Top dressing. Yalta onions are fertilized every two weeks, alternating organic fertilizers with mineral ones. As the first, it is recommended to use an aqueous solution of rotted cow manure (1: 5) or chicken manure (1:10).
- Disease prevention. Excess moisture can cause the development of fungal diseases. Therefore, the first rule of prevention is to control the level of soil moisture.
In addition, during the rooting period, seedlings are treated with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid. After 20 days, the plants are sprayed with Arcerida solution.
Diseases and pests
The variety is characterized as resistant to infections. However, sometimes you have to fight diseases:
- Powdery mildew. You can determine the presence of the disease by the white bloom on the leaves. When alarming symptoms appear, watering is stopped and the plantings are treated with fungicidal preparations such as Fitosporin.
- Gray rot. The first signs appear on the neck of the bulb, and then it affects the entire fruit. In this case, diseased plants are removed, and healthy ones are treated with preparations based on triazole.
- Rust. The manifestation of the disease is red spots on the leaves. To cope with it at an early stage will help the treatment of plantings with a solution of Bordeaux fluid.
They love Yalta onions and pests:
- Onion tick. The presence of this insect can be determined by the delay in plant growth and the appearance of rot on the bulbs. You can get rid of uninvited guests by treating with Appolo-type acaricides.
- Leaf miners. Larvae of moths or flies, which are indicated by white stripes on the leaves. To combat these pests, insecticidal preparations are used, for example, Pyrethrum.
- Thrips. These small pests feed on plant sap, leaving extensive black spots on the leaves. You can get rid of parasites by treating onion plantings with Aktellik or other insecticides.
How is Yalta onion stored
The ripening period for red onions is later than for white ones. This usually occurs in late August or early September. They begin to dig up the bulbs when all the feathers have fallen. Experts advise not to delay harvesting, because autumn moisture (especially in rainy weather) can provoke rotting.
The variety does not have a good keeping quality, so it is advisable to use it as soon as possible.
Storing onions for several months requires compliance with certain conditions:
- in an apartment, Yalta onions must be stored at a temperature not higher than +15 ° C (loggia, balcony), under the same conditions they are kept in the basement;
- the air in the room allocated for root crops must be dry and the humidity low;
- onions will stay fresh longer if you keep them hanging in their braids.
The original Yalta onion grows only in the Crimea. Nevertheless, if all the rules of agricultural technology are followed exactly, you can grow a good harvest of the red sweet vegetable in other regions.
Reviews of the Yalta onion