Vaccination of cattle helps to protect animals from a large number of infectious diseases. As practice shows, the spread of infection through the body of cattle is carried out quite quickly, as a result of which the animal may die several hours after infection. The most effective means of protecting cattle is timely vaccination. Due to the introduction of a special solution, cattle acquires immunity, as a result of which the risk of infection is reduced to almost zero.
Cow vaccination schedule
Cattle vaccinations begin to be done almost immediately, as soon as they are born. As practice shows, special attention should be paid to vaccinations of young animals, since they must develop immunity when they reach 2 months. Adult cattle are vaccinated annually. For clarity, you can consider the scheme of cattle vaccination throughout life, starting from birth.
It is recommended to vaccinate dry cows and heifers in a timely manner against the following diseases:
- salmonellosis - the first time the injection should be injected into the body of cattle 60 days before calving, re-inoculation is carried out after 8-10 days;
- leptospirosis - 45-60 days before the expected time of calving and again after 10 days;
- colibacillosis - 40-60 days before the onset of labor in cattle, the first injection is administered, the next - 2 weeks later.
Newborn calves are vaccinated according to the following scheme:
- salmonellosis - if the cow was vaccinated before giving birth, then the calves are vaccinated on the 20th day of life. If the cow was not vaccinated in a timely manner, then the first injection of the calf is injected on the 5-8th day of life and the second injection after 5 days;
- infectious rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3 - vaccination is carried out 10 days after birth, the next one - 25 days later;
- diplococcal septicemia - vaccination against this infectious disease is at the age of 8 days and after 2 weeks;
- foot and mouth disease - if the calf was born in an area with an increased threat of infection with this disease, then the drug is administered on the first day of the animal's life;
- viral diarrhea - cattle are vaccinated against this ailment at the age of 10 days and again - after 20 days.
For replacement young animals, the following scheme is followed:
- salmonellosis - at the moment when the animal is 25-30 days old;
- trichophytosis - the solution is injected into the animal's body upon reaching 30 days and older, the subsequent vaccination occurs six months later;
- leptospirosis - vaccination must be done immediately, as soon as the calf is 1.5 months old, revaccination - after 6 months;
- viral diarrhea - at the age of 30 days;
- infectious rhinotracheitis - according to the testimony of a veterinarian from 3 months;
- parainfluenza-3 - upon reaching one month, again - after 5-7 weeks;
- anthrax - according to the testimony of a veterinarian from 3 months;
- theileriosis - only according to indications, when cattle reach the age of 6 months and older.
As practice shows, when a threat arises, even dairy cows can be vaccinated against foot and mouth disease. Adult cattle are vaccinated once, revaccination is done 6 months later. Subsequent immunizations are performed annually.
Heifer and heifer vaccination schedule
During the dry period, when the cow does not give milk, a large number of changes occur in her body, for which a certain amount of energy is required. It should be borne in mind that during such periods, harmful microorganisms can affect the health of each individual in different ways. Also, do not forget about non-calving individuals.In both cases, cattle should receive a drug against salmonellosis, leptospirosis and colibacillosis.
During the dry period, in the interval before childbirth, which begins in 2 months, pregnant cows must be vaccinated against salmonellosis. In this case, it is recommended to use a concentrated bovine alum vaccine. It is important to take into account that the injectable drug is administered to cattle twice:
- the first vaccination is done 60 days before the estimated time of calving, using 10 ml of the drug for this;
- the second inoculation is carried out 8-10 days after the first, in this case the amount of the drug is increased to 15 ml.
This vaccination is also great for heifers - cows that will give birth for the first time.
The leptospirosis vaccine is injected directly into the body of a pregnant cow. The polyvalent drug is administered 45-60 days before the expected calving time. Re-vaccination is carried out after 7-10 days. For animals aged 1 to 2 years, it is recommended to inject 8 ml of the drug for the first and second time. Cattle over 2 years old are injected with 10 ml of the vaccine.
Colibacillosis is an infectious type of disease, during which severe diarrhea and sepsis occur. This ailment, as a rule, is often found in calves, but as practice shows, it can also affect dry cows. As a prophylaxis of colibacillosis, about 45-60 days before the upcoming birth, the drug is administered to the animal's body, revaccination is carried out after 14 days. In both cases, the dosage of the vaccine is 10 ml. The drug is injected into cattle intramuscularly in the neck area.
Adult cattle should be vaccinated against foot and mouth disease annually. For these purposes, as a rule, a lapinized vaccine is used. During revaccination, each animal should receive 5 ml of the drug subcutaneously. Many experienced veterinarians recommend dividing the volume of the vaccine - inject 4 ml under the skin and 1 ml under the mucous membrane of the upper lip.
Calf Vaccination Schemes
For the life of calves, it is necessary to observe several particularly important parameters:
- air quality;
- density of animals;
- the presence of dry litter.
By observing these criteria, early cattle disease can be prevented. The first vaccination of young animals can be carried out after the animals are 2 weeks old. During this period, it is recommended to administer drugs against viruses and bacteria that infect the respiratory system. It is not recommended to administer the injection earlier, as there will be no effect from it. If the vaccination is done too late, then the calves will not have time to develop immunity by the age of 2 months.
It is necessary to adhere to the following scheme for vaccinating young animals against the main causative agents of respiratory diseases:
- 12-18 days... At this age, it is recommended to vaccinate calves against the following diseases: rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3, respiratory syncytial infection, pasteurellosis. To prevent the appearance of rhinotracheitis, nasal drops are used - 1 ml of the substance in each nostril. The vaccine against other diseases is administered to cattle subcutaneously in a volume of 5 ml;
- 40-45 days... At the moment, it will be necessary to re-vaccinate cattle against parainfluenza-3, respiratory syncytial infection and pasteurellosis. Vaccination is carried out using the drug "Bovilis Bovipast RSP", the drug is administered subcutaneously, in a volume of 5 ml;
- 120-130 days... When the cattle reaches this age, the young animals are revaccinated against infectious rhinotracheitis on the farm.
If you adhere to this scheme during the vaccination process, you can protect cattle from the main pathogens of respiratory diseases and create the necessary level of immunity by the age of 2 months. In addition, it is possible to prevent the development of infectious diseases in calves up to 7-9 months of age.
To prevent major infectious diseases, veterinarians recommend using the following scheme;
- 1 month - carry out vaccination against salmonellosis. Vaccinations against this disease are done mainly in those regions where there is a high incidence of salmonellosis. Before introducing the drug to an animal, it is recommended to first check with the veterinarian about the serotype of the pathogen;
- 1.5-4 months - during this period of time, cattle are vaccinated against ringworm and anthrax. It is necessary to vaccinate animals against anthrax annually, the optimal age for calves is 3 months;
- 6 months - from this period, cattle are vaccinated against rabies. If a difficult epizootic situation is observed in the region, then it is necessary to vaccinate at 3 months and repeat at 6 months.
Timely vaccination of cattle can prevent the occurrence of dangerous infectious diseases leading to death.
Cattle vaccination should be carried out on time, according to the veterinary scheme. This is the only way to get a healthy herd, which in the process of growth and development will not be exposed to infectious diseases with a fatal outcome. Vaccination is the immediate responsibility of every farmer.